The head of the expert section on water transport, state Duma Deputy Viktor Deryabkin:
"Paradoxically, but water transport is the least environmental harm to the ocean. Only 2.2 % of the carbon emissions of all industries accounted for by modern navigation. The court is gradually moving to the lighter eco-friendly and advanced fuels, this trend will continue for the near future. Water transport in the long term may be the most environmentally friendly.
But issues such as safety of navigation, to the fore, as they directly affect the reduction of accidents at sea, including oil spills. Attention should be paid to the popularization in our country, this profession as a naval pilot. A pilot activity is a key element of ensuring navigation safety, prevention of accidents with ships, protection of the marine environment in the most difficult of navigation areas of navigation. The pilot also performs a number of duties of a public nature. In Russia it is necessary to carry out reforms in the pilot activities taking into account modern realities, in accordance with the requirements of IMO Resolution A. 960(23) and the result of the experience of the advanced Maritime countries to which they came in the last few decades in a pilot sector.
Another challenge of our time - cybersecurity in Maritime transport, combating terrorism is something that requires attention, those new competencies and threats that are part of our reality and we need to train professionals in this area."
Deputy Chairman of the Duma Committee on transport and construction Paul Fedyaev:
"Today we have 470 sq km of dead zones in the oceans due to the use of industrial fertilizer is alarming. Abroad and in Russia there is the problem of "fish release" the proportion which can reach up to 20% of the catch from unscrupulous fishermen. This phenomenon causes significant damage to the resource base.
Overall, in recent years the world catch of aquatic biological resources varies at the level of 90-95 million tons. In this case, the decline in fish stocks is rapidly growing fish farming. 2014 was a landmark, when the share of aquaculture in the global catch has exceeded the proportion of wild fish. The growth of aquaculture opens new opportunities but poses new challenges, interacting with the natural biodiversity of the ocean. It must be said that in the oceans there is a reserve for development of stocks of wild fish in the form of underutilized species such as mackerel, mackerel, sardine, Antarctic krill, anchovies, squid in open ocean, Pacific saury, and a number of other water bioresources. The involvement of these resources in the world's fisheries will give an additional catch of about 20 million tons. Such reserves are from Russia and most of the coastal countries."
Coordinator of the project "Marine policy" Center for strategic estimates and projections Anna Gornova:
"Such a thing as "sea economy" will increasingly come to the fore and shaping marine policy. Countries have to build relations with each other in the oceans the distribution of marine spaces and resources. In the future, you will be prompted to the formation of a new legal regulator Marine of the Constitution, initiated may be Russia as one of the leading Maritime countries of the world.
In 2018, devoted attention to the problem of pollution of oceans by plastic, the consumption of which has become widespread in various forms. The period of disintegration of plastic nanoparticles is 450 years. Nanoplastic absorb toxins up to 100 times more than microplastics. Particles and micro neoplastica come from food into the body of marine animals, birds, fish. Plastic waste can be seen everywhere - on the beach, off the coast and hundreds of miles in the open ocean. Every year in the Ocean dropped to 8 million tons of garbage, 80-90% of which is plastic that is mass produced in the world with 70 years.
In many countries, including the EU countries are trying to reduce plastic production, and some cities and even abandon the use of packages and bottles. Europe goes on biomaterials quick disposal. However, in Russia today is not in a hurry to reduce the consumption of plastic tableware and packaging, on the grounds that such a ban affect low-income segments of the population. Of course, plastic is cheap, and paper bags or glass bottles are much more expensive, but on the other scale human health and the planet, than to risk we have no right. Russia – self-sufficient country. And if we, for example, at least begin to apply innovative technologies in road and industrial construction, many of which we have the best in the world and are 2-3 times save budget money, the money for environmentally friendly packaging and many other useful projects there."
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