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The tactics of navigation in ice. Continued
Material posted: Gornova Anna M.Publication date: 21-11-2017
For transit navigation in the Arctic there is a possibility to bypass the areas of the accumulations of ice. Swimming on the slopes of the SMP may be required for linear transportation speeds. The project "Marine policy" under the heading "Experience of ice navigation for future generations" continues to publish chapters from the book ice captain, and scientist Emil Mikhailovich Shotzberger of "Ice road of the Arctic. The tactics of navigation in ice". Today we publish the 8th Chapter of this manual entitled "end-to-end navigation on the NSR in different seasons of the year." It will be about choosing the easiest path through the vessel when the voyage via the NSR, and the Chapter provides an overview of navigation and of geographical and hydrometeorological characteristics of the Northern sea route.

E. M. Shotzberger

The tactics of navigation in ice

Chapter 8. Through navigation on the NSR in different seasons of the year

This section describes the natural conditions influencing the choice of easiest ways of the vessel in end-to-end navigation on the NSR.

In the official documents regulating the navigation in the ice, a clear definition of "easiest way" is not given. This allows each consumer to opt for the most favourable movement in the ice, consistent with the availability of information (current and forecast), the state of the ship (ships in the caravan), other objective and subjective factors.

To select the easiest ways used the following criteria:

  1. Position of ports (points) between which is swimming. In this case we are talking about end-to-end navigation from the Western to the Eastern border of the specified route with no visits to the Arctic ports (pips).
  2. Limitations on the lees. All over through navigation provides for the possibility of use for pilotage of atomic icebreakers type "Arktika" (with a draught of 11 m or more).
  3. The optimal combination of characteristics of the state of the ice cover, generated by the experience of ice navigation and practice its scientific and operational support (minimum cohesion, the maximum razreshimosti, etc.).
  4. Minimum estimated costs of time due to the movement of the shortest distance in light ice conditions in the bypass areas of heavy ice.

For each decade the easiest way is reflecting the distribution of ice in the decade of the given month and year.

As initial material for selection of the most favorable way in through the navigation on the NSR is mainly used decadal data on the distribution of ice during the period 1970-1990, prepared at the AARI for international exchange, and published information about the characteristics of the state of the ice cover of the Arctic seas and their influence on shipping.

8.1. Position option the easiest way the through navigation on the NSR

In the cold season (October — may) along the Arctic coast in the major navigable waterways (except Straits of the Kara Gate and the Bering Longa) is set and stored landfast ice. Along its edges due to atmospheric circulation and under-ice currents are formed taprobanae polynyas (gaps). The easiest way in this period, as a rule, passes through taprobanae glades (clearings).

For the whole period of regular ice observations noted only a few cases (the frequency of occurrence of 5-10 %), when the easiest route passed directly from the Cape of Desire to the Western Severozemelski the polynya on the Vilkitsky Strait to the area West new Siberian polynya and then to the North of Wrangel island.

The position most favourable path during the navigation period (June — September) for the entire Northern sea route is determined by the condition of the landfast ice (until it cracked) and the position of the ice masses.

The most favorable version of the way the through voyage via the NSR in the most Western area in June and July, most often pass through the Straits of the Kara Gate and yugorskiy Shar, and in September and October — around the Cape of Desire (repeatability 55-80 %). In August the use of these variants are equally probable. Further to the East, the most favorable version of the path passes through the Vilkitsky Strait (repeatability 95-100 %).

The position most favorable path in the Laptev sea and near the Novosibirsk Islands has significant seasonal changes. Prior to the intensive destruction of the ice of the Taimyr ice massif, the most favorable version of the path passes along the southern periphery of this array (repeatability 55-90 %), and in August — October through the array (repeatability 65-90 %). In July, the use of these variants are equally probable.

In the area of the Novosibirsk Islands to the landfast ice breakup (June and July), the most favorable version of the path passes to the North of these Islands, and in August — October and through the Strait of Sannikov (repeatability 50— 85 %).

On the Eastern section of the route with end-to-end the swimming at the SMP (East Siberian and Chukchi sea) most favorable version of the path has a relatively stable position and runs along the boundary of the landfast ice, and then crack it along the coast of the Chukotka Peninsula (repeatability 65-90 %).

The total length of the path in end-to-end navigation on the NSR changed for each decade of the navigation period from 2100 to 3400 miles. However, even in the period of maximum development of the ice cover (the first decade of June) the length of the path in end-to-end navigation on the NSR may be only 2350 miles.

The position most favorable version of the way the through voyage via the NSR saved and during the flights from East to West.

8.2. The distribution characteristics of the ice cover on the way in through the navigation on the NSR

The most common characteristic of ice conditions is the length of the path in the ice.

In the cold period of the year when the Arctic seas is dominated by the ice cohesion is 9-10 points and sailing conditions are determined by the length of the path in the ice of different ages. In the warm period of the year the sailing conditions are determined by the length of the path in the drift ice of different cohesion and the landfast ice (to crack it), and the critical length of the path in a cohesive ice.

From year to year, the average length of the path in the ice is experiencing significant fluctuations. At the beginning of the season (end of may — beginning of June) the total length of the path in a cohesive drifting ice can be 800-1100 miles in favourable hydrometeorological conditions years and 1500-1750 miles in adverse. The length of the path in the landfast ice varies respectively from 100 up to 160 up to 240— 280 miles.

The most active period of navigation along the NSR (July—September) under favorable meteorological conditions, the landfast ice decay and the reduction of the cohesive zones of ice takes place very rapidly. In the first decade of July the fast ice breaks up, and in the first week of August disappears cohesive ice on the way in through the navigation on the NSR.

In case of unfavorable hydrometeorological conditions, the length of the path in a cohesive ice is in August 550-800 miles, and in September of 200-250 miles. The length of the path in the landfast ice even in August can be 70-180 miles.

At the end of the season (usually in October) ice conditions the through voyage via the NSR are determined by the intensity of ice formation and the amount of old ice remaining in the area of SMP.

In case of unfavorable hydrometeorological conditions, the length of the path in a cohesive ice in October and sharply increases in the third week of October can reach 500-1500 miles, and a significant part of this journey takes place in the old ice.

Under favorable meteorological conditions swimming can take place outside the solid ice even at the end of October.

Natural conditions when swimming in the fast ice, drifting ice, and also in areas sapropelic polynyas (gaps) in each of the Arctic seas differ markedly. However, there are some General features that are useful to ensure the efficiency and security through navigation along the NSR.

The frequency of occurrence of the most favourable ice conditions of version of the way the through voyage via the NSR, % (first decade of the month)

 

Ways

The Western part of the Kara sea

The Eastern part of the Kara sea

The Laptev Sea

The East Siberian sea

The Chukchi sea

through the Straits of the Kara Gate and Yugorsky Shar

around the Cape of Desire

through the Strait of Vilkitsky

around the Cape the Arctic

through

The Taimyr ice massif

the southern periphery of the Taimyr massif

to the North of the new Siberian Islands

through the Strait of Sunny Cove

South of Wrangel island

along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula

June

80

20

95

5

10

90

100

0

5

95

July

65

35

100

0

65

35

100

0

20

80

August

60

40

100

0

65

35

50

50

20

80

September

45

55

100

0

90

10

15

85

10

90

October

20

80

100

0

85

15

30

70

20

80

 

The length of the path in the ice of different age and cohesion of the through voyage via the NSR in October, miles

Paternost way

Old ice cohesion 7-8 points

Old ice cohesion 9-10 points

Young ice with a thickness of 15 cm and unity 9-10 points

Ice cohesion 7-10 oktas

 

 

Decade

Decade

Decade

Decade

 

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

Average

65

55

80

30

75

155

45

440

795

95

130

235

The least

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

The greatest

260

205

330

270

620

990

330

940

1180

350

620

1030


Note.
When calculating the average distance of the extreme values were not taken into account.

 

The probability of similar and different types of sailing conditions on the Western (up to the Meridian 125° East. debt.) and Eastern areas SMP

 

 

The navigation period

 

 

Similar sailing conditions at both sites

 

 

 

Different types of swimming conditions at both sites

 

 

Light

Heavy

Average

The beginning (mid June)

0,07

0,17

0,16

0,60

Mid (mid-August

0,40

0,01

0,03

0,55

The end (mid-October)

0,05

0,26

0,29

0,40


Features swimming
in the fast ice. The through voyage via the NSR plots great length in the courts to overcome landfast ice in the Vilkitsky Strait and on the Western approaches. In the landfast ice during the period of maximum development in addition to the dominant annual thick ice is usually stored area a more youthful and smooth ice. The presence of such zones and favorable for canal lining their orientation allow extremely to successfully pass this section of the route.

For example, a/l "Russia" in may 1989, was held in the landfast ice zones annual thin ice 43 % of the way, putting in the gasket channel a little more than a day. In the same month of 1987, but in the absence of favorably oriented zones of young ice and, as a result, the presence of high torosantucci and snow cover of ice and/l Arktika overcame landfast ice more than 6 days. More than half of this time was spent on the wiring of the m/V "stake" through the ice "plug" that is formed in the channel after the icebreaker "raids".

In the landfast ice after the pre-channel strip, which sometimes is accompanied by the wiring of the ship, there is a possibility of multiple use. At the beginning of the navigation period (may — July) when the freezing of ice in the canal is not, and its use significantly improves the reliability and safety of navigation.

At the time of the landfast ice breakup navigation conditions deteriorate sharply: the duration of this period is usually about one decade.

Especially swimming in a cohesive drifting ice. The motion of the ship in the ice even if that is used the most favorable option path fraught with difficulties, especially in the close-knit drifting ice.

Areas of solid ice on the path in end-to-end navigation on the NSR marked in areas of ice massifs. In the period of maximum development of the ice cover on the way in through the navigation on the NSR with a probability of 95 % retained six sections with solid ice.

In the period of ice cover destruction, the number of such plots and the probability of their preservation is greatly reduced.

At the final stage of navigation (October) again there is an increase in the number of sites with close pack ice.

The great extent of the way the through voyage via the Northern sea route and the presence of difficult areas define the features of the navigation. Icebreaking, usually performed only in high risk areas, in places where solid ice. The way clean water is a rare and rarefied ice of the court are often held independently. This fact requires the navigators continuously monitoring the change of the ice and hydrometeorological situation taking into account the capacity of the vessel.

The probability of formation of both heavy and light sailing conditions in the whole way the through voyage via the NSR is small. In most cases, there is a possibility of ice concentration of the main forces in the areas most unfavourable conditions of navigation.

Among a broad set of characteristics that define a cohesive state of the drifting ice (torosantucci, age, predominant forms, etc.), the most significant impact on the work of the courts has compression.

The most intense and long-time compression occur in the contact zone of drifting ice with fast ice or close to the shore.

The most often marked compression of less than 2 points. At the height of the navigation period (July — September) during the crossing of the arrays of solid ice, the intensity of contraction is reduced to 1-2 points.

In addition to forced outages lasting from several hours to one day, compression can lead to loss of seaworthiness of the vessel and even to his death.

Repeatability of the number of sites with close pack ice on the way the through voyage via the NSR, %

The navigation period

The number of plots

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

The beginning (mid June)

0

0

0

0

5

95

Mid (mid-August)

23

30

22

25

0

0

The end (mid-October)

0

8

8

22

22

40

 

The repeatability of the Chukchi taprobanae clearings, %

A month

A decade

Repeatability

June

1

2

3

36

43

68

July

1

70

Features sailing in a rare, open pack ice in the area sapropelic (coastal) polynyas and leads. Vessels in rare thin ice, as well as in the areas of formation of polynyas has a main feature — the movement is made out of solid ice. This gives you the opportunity to increase the speed of the vessel, which consequently leads to the increased likelihood of contact with drifting ice (especially in limited visibility).

In summer the most common hummocky ice. Blows it on the hull can cause serious damage.

A narrow zone (1-2 KBT up to several miles) between cohesive drifting ice and landfast ice (shore), called clearing, is typically very effectively used in the navigation (Chukchi clearing). But unlike polynyas, the traffic here always involves a degree of risk, even if the high repeatability of the presence of clearings.

The peculiarity of the existence of clearings is that even small changes in wind direction can create impassable ice dam or to completely or partially close.

In winter the vessel in a similar situation, may experience the intense compression of the ice or even be in the ice captivity as a result of freezing of ice with a part of pressed him of drifting ice. In the summer, in addition to the grips, there is a danger of the vessel in the area traversella or in shallow water.

Traffic on taprobanae the clearing, as a rule, is accompanied by icebreakers, in varying degrees, guaranteeing the release of the vessel from the danger zone.

8.3. The beginning and ending dates through navigation along the NSR

Organization of regular and safe navigation along the NSR must take into account the most favorable natural conditions of the start and end dates of the main types of swimming: basedomain the navigation of vessels of different ice categories and their Postings icebreakers of different capacity.

To determine the guaranteed timing is possible on the natural conditions of the beginning and end bibledoctrines the navigation of vessels of different ice categories the criteria developed.

Assessment opportunities through swimming in clean water and primary types of ice. The conditions under which the through voyage along the NSR is possible in any vessels without ice-strengthened, occupy a special place. Over the whole range of regular ice observations is not fixed the case when way the through voyage via the NSR, at least for one decade it would be only pure water. At the same time on separate sites, the average length basedomain period of up to 7.5 decades.

A number of sites through swimming is possible only in pure water, and their distribution in the navigation period is subject to considerable seasonal and interannual changes.

The duration of swimming in clean water and primary types of ice on separate sections of the route with end-to-end navigation on the NSR (1970-1989.), decade

Part of the route

Average

Minimum

Maximum

The Western part of the Kara sea

7,5

2

11

The Eastern part of the Kara sea

1

0

5

The Western part of the Laptev sea

0,5

0

7

The area of the new Siberian Islands

2

0

6

The Eastern part East-Siberian

Sea

1

0

7

The Chukchi sea

2,5

0

10

The most favorable time basedomain navigation Leprivate category ARC-5. In General, the end-to-end bibledoctrines the navigation of vessels in this category are limited. At the same time there were cases, when conditions for navigation without icebreaker support persist for almost three months (the frequency of occurrence of 5 %). The most probable duration through basedomain navigation category Arc-5 2-4 decades, and their frequency of slightly more than 10%.

The most favorable timing basedomain swimming be in the second week of August and the end of the third decade of September; the frequency of occurrence of such periods of less than 20 %. Basic ice problems for bibledoctrines through navigation category Arc-5 are formed in the area of the Strait of Vilkitsky and approaches from the West and from the East.

Criteria for determining the start and end dates bibledoctrines the navigation of vessels of different categories in the landfast ice and drifting ice

The ice category of the vessel

Landfast ice

Drifting ice

Beginning swimming (spring)

The end of swimming (fall)

The beginning of the navigation

The end of the voyage

Sustainable

the Nam mummers ice to cohesion

The amount of residual ice (for a total cohesion score 9-10)

9 points

7-8 points

4-6 points

1-3 points

0

Arc - 7 (type m/V "Norilsk)

Date of establishment of landfast ice thickness of 100 cm with the destruction of its 3 points

Date of establishment of landfast ice thickness of 50 cm

9 points

Start date of steady ice formation

Date of establishment of the ice thickness

5-10 cm

Date of establishment of the ice thickness of 15-20 cm

Date of establishment of the ice thickness of 25-30 cm

Date of establishment of the ice thickness of 50 cm

Arc-5 And Arc-4

NV

Date of establishment of landfast ice thickness of 15-20 cm

4-6 points

NV

NV

Start date of steady ice formation

Date of establishment of the ice thickness of 5-10 cm

Date of establishment of the ice thickness of 15-20 cm

Arc-3, Arc-2

NV

NV

1-3 points

NV

NV

NV

Date of stable ice formation

Date of establishment of the ice thickness

5 cm

Note. NV – basedomain swimming impossible.

The frequency of cases when the opportunity basedomain of navigation was limited to ice conditions at other sites through navigation, is small and is about 14 %.

The most favorable time basedomain navigation category Arc-7. With the commissioning of the vessels Arc-7 markedly increased the ability to pass-through basedomain swimming. In favourable ice, the vessels m/V Norilsk (SA-15) can carry out regular end-to-end swimming for two to three months, and in some areas up to three to four months.

In the most favorable for the navigation of the month (September) vessels m/V Norilsk (SA-15) unable to successfully implement end-to-end basedomain sailing on SMP (repeatability 70-80 %). Full confidence in a regular and reliable end-to-end swimming for the vessels m/V "Norilsk" even in the most favourable period, although the frequency of occurrence of years when the voyage is in September can be successful is 75 %. The greatest difficulty besedilom swimming areas are marked on the through highway in the Eastern part of the Kara sea and further East, including the Laptev sea and East Siberian sea, in the area of Severozemelski, and Alanskogo the Taimyr ice massif.

The frequency of occurrence of different duration through basedomain navigation category Arc-7 at the SMP (1970-1989 years), %

Type of vessel

The duration of the voyage, ten days

≤1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

The diesel-electric

"Amguema"

15

30

20

10

5

15

5

...

...

...

Ship

Norilsk

10

5

10

10

20

20

10

0

5

10

Note. The ellipsis (...) indicates the absence of data.

 

The possibility of end-to-end basedomain navigation for vessels of the category of Arc-7 (1970-1989).

Type of vessel

August

September

October

 

Decade

Decade

Decade

 

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

The diesel-electric "Amguema"

 

 

...

 

 

 

...

 

 

 

0,25

 

 

0,45

 

 

0,65

 

 

0,45

 

 

0,35

 

 

0,10

 

 

...

 

 

 

The Motor Ship "Norilsk"

0,15

0,20

0,60

0,70

0,75

0,80

0,70

0,30

0,10

 

Note. The ellipsis (...) indicates the absence of data.

The calculated indices of difficulty through navigation in the ice-breakers of different types. Due to objective difficulties not developed reliable criteria for evaluating possible dates for the start and end navigation with icebreakers.

In principle, modern Arctic icebreakers can sail in the SMP area all year round. The question is how effective such a voyage, especially when posting ships of different ice categories.

The General assessment of ice conditions can be done using the calculated values, the average operating speed of the icebreaker and the time period for through navigation on the NSR. The calculations are performed on an empirical model AARI and include almost all characteristics of the state of the ice cover in the way of swimming, including compression.

In the period of maximum development of the ice cover (may — first half of June) the use of icebreakers capacity of 16 thousand kW (22 thousand HP) for through navigation along the NSR is ineffective.

The average operating speed and time (indices of difficulty) with end-to-end Autonomous navigation on the Northern sea route icebreakers of different capacity under different ice conditions

Indicators

the difficulties of navigation

May

August

October

Power icebreakers, thousand kW (thousand HP)

57

(75)

30

(41)

16

(22)

57

(75)

30

(41)

16

(22)

57

(75)

30

(41)

16

(22)

The average operating speed of the icebreaker in the ice, uz

Light ice conditions

10,2

7,0

3,8

17,2

15,5

12,9

16,5

14,5

13,5

Costs time, days

12

17

33

1

1

1

1

1

1

The average operating speed of the icebreaker in the ice, uz

Average ice conditions

7,5

3,4

NV

15,4

12,4

11,0

16,4

13,8

11,9

Costs time, days

17

33

NV

3

4

4

4

5

6

The average operating speed of the icebreaker in the ice, uz

Heavy ice conditions

5,8

2,2

NV

13,1

8,2

4,4

13,6

10,5

7,3

Costs time, days

23

68

NV

6

10

19

7

9

14

Note. NV means that swimming is impossible.

8.4. Comments to Chapter 7 and Chapter 8

Chapters 7 and 8 provide an overview of navigation and of geographical and hydrometeorological characteristics of the Northern sea route. Material selected from the publications of the Northern sea route Administration and the State hydrographic enterprise of the Ministry of transport of the Russian Federation, "Guide for through navigation of vessels on the Northern sea route". Questions available options of the choices is highlighted separately in Chapter 8. Basically in this Chapter focuses on options for seasonal coastal navigation, but the section about the easiest ways through sailing in the cold period of the year specified path zapremina ice holes and gaps. More should be said about these options.

In 1971, the goal was to deliver the ice breaker "Vladivostok", which in Finland to plentywood to the beginning of the navigation, i.e. by the end of June. Several options were proposed route around Africa, through the Suez canal, according to the usual SMP coastal route through landfast ice of the Straits of Vilkitsky and Sannikov, proposed by V. N. Kupetsky, the route to the North of the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, which was adopted. To help the l/K "Vladivostok" has been provided by the icebreaker "Lenin". A little more than three weeks the caravan has safely overcome the way to plentywood. Thus, all initial options the most successful and the fastest was the fourth, the latter, apparently paradoxical, but very real - zapremina the high-latitude polynyas, leads, leads and cracks, and also North of the archipelagos of New Land, Severnaya Zemlya, Novosibirsk and Bear Islands. Valery in this flight participated as a hydrologist and after its completion he wrote the scientific report, the final part of which was entitled: "About the discovery of quasi-stationary high latitude leads, about its Genesis and about geotectonically lineamenta marine Arctic landscapes". The last conclusion of this section was:

"In practical terms, Geotektonika lineaments provide opportunities for swimming through cohesive arrays not only of the Arctic seas, but maybe just the Arctic ocean.

The time will come when using these lineaments, a powerful ice-breakers, if necessary will be able to advance themselves and hold court and to the pole, and through it transit from ocean to ocean."

These ideas fairly quickly began to turn into real action. In July 1974, the caravan ballast of ships from Pevek to Tiksi was filed in the bypass Novosibirsk Islands from the North. In 1975, the icebreaker "Admiral Makarov" from Finland to plentywood came also to the North of New Siberia. In August 1977, icebreaker "Arktika" of the Siberian polynya paved the way to the pole, and in June 1978, the nuclear-powered icebreaker "Siberia" held a diesel-electric ship "Captain Myshevsky" transit from West to East the way that in 1971 he mastered the "Vladivostok".

In the book N. G. Babich, "the tactics of navigation in ice of the Western Arctic" the analysis of ice conditions and speeds while swimming
carrying out the flights in the area from Cape zhelaniya to
125°E., which indicates a significant total
the length of the zones of clean water, broken and drift ice.

At the end of may — beginning of June the caravan a/l "Lenin" was held in
the ice cohesion 9-10 points to 36.8% of the way from the total length of the path of navigation, but the caravan a/l "Siberia" — 24,6% of the way, and more than 50% of the way was covered in young ice and in open water.

In the Eastern sector of the Arctic, there are also such zones, the most significant of them is the Great Siberian polynya. It was discovered in the early XIX century by the Russian explorers and expeditions Hedenstrom M. M., P. F. Anjou, F. P. Wrangel, and they depicted the Northern border of the immobile landfast ice. On the map M. Hedenstrom on the outer boundary of landfast ice was written: "this space over the ice and begins the open Northern ocean." Since 1982, the early high latitude icebreaking cargo ships for Siberian polynya in both directions become annual and regular.

From 1989 to track SMP went to transit court. Since 1990, the nuclear submarines are heading to the North pole each summer, and in 1993 a/l "Russia" held in transit m/V "Kandalaksha" to bypass the island from the North in may. Lighting these events V. N. Kupetsky wrote: "...In the Arctic ocean are two of the Strait FRAM and Bering. Each Strait to the right, to the East along the banks of the halfway - hole, then way - the array is pressed to the shore. Conversely, from every Strait to the left, to the West, halfway - compressed array, then the halfway - hole. The strong compression and the most difficult ice conditions are just to the left of the Strait! How to overcome these challenges? Maneuver in space or in time. Maneuver in space means to bypass heavy ground from the North. Maneuver in time means waiting an opportune moment, when the compression is weakened...... adopt the conclusion that transit ice swimming from the Bering Strait to the FRAM Strait and back possible all year round. Just not ahead (wherever you want), and brain (where possible)". Early experimental flights l "Lenin" l/C "Vladivostok" at the end of may 1971 and the a/l "Sibir" d/e "Captain Myshevsky" at the same time, but in 1978 showed that there are roads in high latitudes for transit navigation. In these flights the court held in a stationary sapropelic ice-holes for clean water more than 40% of the route, and in may 1993, in the framework of the "INSROP" m/V "Kandalaksha" was successfully held on the Northern borders of the East Siberian sea Siberian polynya in Savagelike and then to the North of the Chukchi sea from Sausagelike polynyas in the Canadian off the coast of Alaska with access to the Bering Strait.

Thus, we see that for transit navigation in the Arctic there is a possibility to bypass the areas of the accumulations of ice, the compression force in the high latitudes is smaller than in the coastal area, so swimming on the slopes of the SMP may be required for linear transportation speeds. In connection with this shipping there is a new ice routes – and high-latitude TRANS-Arctic route.

The coastal trail passes through the Straits of the Arctic seas. A characteristic feature of the coastal slopes is the presence in summer, vast areas of clean water, and in winter on the contrary is dominated by cohesive landfast and drifting ice, parts of pure water are virtually absent.

High-latitude tracks are on the Northern outskirts of the Arctic seas. The advantage of the high-latitude slopes, compared with the traditional coastal, is to reduce the extent of the way of sailing, maximum use of areas of pure water sapropelic stationary polynyas in the most difficult ice conditions of winter and spring navigation. Experience high-latitude transaction allows to make a conclusion about the appropriateness of the choices of navigation on the combined option, i.e. in the zones of formation of the most severe ice conditions for high-latitude and coastal sections of the route, especially in spring, during the development of stationary polynyas sapropelic, with a maximum ice thickness and maximum ice extent. As a backup option, you can build channels in the fast zone.

The term "TRANS-Arctic transit" means the voyage from the seas of the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific ocean (or Vice versa) across the polar region. This variant of the ice routes is at an early stage of development and learn more about him in the next Chapter.

 


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