To restore the Institute of public shipping companies and create within the Agency of Maritime and river transport structure for the management of Maritime transport REPLOT as state-owned enterprises, including through public - private partnerships. The proposal was made during the "round table" on a theme: "Formation of an effective model of legal regulation in the interests of ensuring comprehensive and sustainable development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation", which took place in the state Duma last week 6 Feb.
The main report was made by leading researcher of the Institute of legislation and comparative law under the Government of the Russian Federation Vladimir Yemelyantsev. The discussion was attended by deputies, leading experts and representatives of the scientific community, employees of relevant departments and organizations.
In 2017 in order to expert and scientific support of legislation the state Duma has allocated funds to conduct a series of research works on key areas of training legislative support. One such area was the Arctic, the legislative base on which to build this year.
A report on the organization of Maritime activities in the Arctic made Vice-President, International transport Academy, captain Vitaly Zbaraschenko. The expert formulated the concept of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation in the part of sea transportation.
Vitaly Zbaraschenko called for a shift from service in the Arctic for development fixed assets – Russian transport fleet. "What we do in the Arctic? We do service. Provide public services – are described in regulations of the Agency of sea and river fleet. Well, what ports we have been Rosmorport, but the Russian Navy no one does. It is necessary to change the Provisions on the ministries, the Agency of sea and river fleet that they were worried about the development of the transport fleet, not just a construction (such as ice breakers, rescue vessels, etc.). It's all service! Even the administration of the Northern sea route today is "porter at the gates of the Arctic". And for whom today we all this the Arctic? For foreigners? Last year 6 Chinese ships have already passed transit cargo from China, including in Saint Petersburg through the Arctic. And we have no ships. We don't go. The carriers, those that were built for LNG cost of 365 million dollars per ship. One day a simple of such a vessel costs about 90 thousand dollars. Them dangerous to take in some kind of commercial structure, it may fail. Here you need a different approach – to create a shipping company. First of all, in the Arctic need to go back to the creation of the state shipping companies»- said in his speech the expert.
Vitaly Zbaraschenko stressed the strategic importance for the security of the Russian Federation development of the Arctic bridge – run Arctic container line (ACL) in Murmansk – Petropavlovsk – Murmansk. And also reminded that the cost of transportation by sea 6 times cheaper than the railway From Murmansk through Novorossiysk, and today through Sevastopol to carry to Vladivostok cheaper, and even more so on Islands - Petropavlovsk, than by rail.
We published the concept of development of Maritime traffic in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation proposed Vice-President International transport Academy, captain Vitali, Zbaraschenko.
On the development of Maritime traffic in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation
(To the draft Federal law on the Arctic)
At present, ships under the flag of the Russian Federation carry about 2% of the domestic cargo, the remaining cargo is transported by foreign vessels through the Russian economy. Beneficiary in the freight market for foreign trade cargo flows of Russia by a foreign shipowner.
For comparison: in the late 1980s seaports of the USSR passes cabotage, import and export annually an average of 400 million tons of cargo, of which at least 60% of 240 million tons were transported by the domestic fleet.
In 2017 the ports of Russia, Ukraine and the Baltic States have passed a Russian cargo of about 800 million tons, but the fleet under the Russian flag carried only 18 million tons of cargo, i.e. only 2%, and the rest of the freight was incurred on leasing of foreign tonnage that is at least 30 billion USD. This figure Russia's economy is spent on strengthening the transport capacity of the foreign fleet. And it every year!
The Statute of the Agency of Maritime and river transport is necessary to Supplement the major responsibility for the formation and implementation of programs of development of the domestic sea trade fleet. Hopes for private investors in creating a strong domestic Maritime fleet in the framework of the experience of a quarter century of market economy is virtually zero, as the shipping business is in Russia the most internationalized business, when the cost of goods (ton-mile freight rate) and its price are formed by economy international freight market. At that time, as the cost of the export potential of natural resources and other products (oil, gas, ore, machinery, agricultural products, forest products...) is determined by the domestic prices for labor, electricity , gas, water, and Zabrodina price – level of prices on the international market with a higher cost of production. Therefore, the investment capital investment for the fleet is 10 to 12 years, and for the remaining items of export experience 5 – 7 years. But with the regulatory service life of the transport fleet of 20 – 25 years payback of investments and their reproduction for self-financing of subsequent supplies of the fleet is reliably ensured with a possible reduction in the cost of the future of transport logistics for export structures of the country.
Therefore, to protect the sovereignty of the country, increase foreign exchange revenues to the national budget of the Russian Federation in the preparation of proposals for legislative support of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (azrf), notably the segment most important to Arctic marine transport, it seems necessary under Federal Law to provide a set of measures to revise the Provisions on Maritime transport of the Russian Federation and the Agency of Maritime and river transport, including:
- in the formation of development policy of transport of the Russian Federation to consider the necessity of inclusion in the Statute of the Agency of Maritime and river transport responsibilities for the development and responsibility for the execution of development programs of the national marine fleet, sufficient to fully meet passenger and cargo cabotage, the national share of freight transportation in Russia's foreign trade and the broadest possible participation in the exports of transport services for foreign charterers;
- the development of a national economic model to create the conditions of value when making long-term foreign contracts, through the maximum possible involvement of national Maritime transport fleet of their transportation services, including through inclusion in the investment sections of the draft such contracts transport component;
- restoration of the Institute of public shipping companies (especially in the Arctic), and the establishment within the Agency of Maritime and river transport structures similar FGUP Rosmorport for the management of Maritime transport and including, especially in the Arctic – REPLOT as state-owned enterprises, including based on PPP – public - private partnership.
Navigation and environmental security of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation
In connection with the change of status of administration of the SMP to consider the advisability of incorporating the duties of ASMP formation annually on a commercial basis navigation software (graphics) the fleet operating in the Arctic with constant monitoring of its implementation and adjustment depending on the operational situation in the Arctic.
To use Trunk-feeder transport technological systems for transport in the Arctic: the shuttles and the main court of the property of the Project owners, but in the management of the Russian shipping companies, including crewing, with payment of a fee for the administration of the courts, and without financial responsibility for the eventual economic outcome, except in cases of crime. The maximum possible production activity in the SMP of ships under the Russian flag with Russian crew is the key to high level of environmental safety in the Arctic
As options to consider:
- Limit the size of cargo ships in the Arctic (according to dwt of 50 thousand tonnes), Sirina case less than the width of the ALA 34 meters;
- Translation energy fleet on low level sulfur in diesel fuel, LNG or nuclear power plant;
- Spectralbovine to design vessels with high ice class: navigation bridge in the forward part of the vessel, hydro - and pneumo - wash;
- Permanent control over preservation of reserve buoyancy of a vessel - precise gauges.
Implementation of the project the Arctic Container line
Implementation of the project the Arctic Container line Murmansk – Petropavlovsk - Murmansk (AKL) – the key to secure and protect Russia's sovereignty in the Arctic, decrease the psychological impact on the population decline syndrome (Mainland), framework for the implementation of the container gasification of remote areas of the Russian Arctic and far East, regular services to the Maritime suburbs of Russia until the Kuril Islands, attraction of transit cargo from the Asia Pacific region, the far East seafood export and establishment in addition to the TSR of the second pulse of the national strategic transport corridor West – East.
The shipbuilding industry of the Arctic shuttles and large tankers, LNG carriers and bulk carriers for the export of Arctic export of LNG, oil, coal, fertilizers, second-generation container ships to AKL, including the maintenance of the Arctic fleet in the Crimea, at a shipyard "Bay". The construction of vessels river-sea for the Arctic in the Crimea with the delivery of semi-submersible vessels in the Arctic, own Aeroflot for flights to the Arctic crews and repair crews for the Arctic fleet.
The establishment of multi-purpose production of containers, including reefer, tank containers and containers for the transportation of LNG.
The creation of a deep-water cargo terminals for the Arctic Container line in Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Dixon, Egvekinot, Petropavlovsk, as well as the Western and Eastern ice-free prearctic terminal hubs for LNG on the approaches to the SMP. Navigation of the approaches to these terminals may be combined with the export of the Arctic oil and Taimyr coal.
The list of measures for consideration:
Introduction to the practice of river and coastal traffic in the Arctic mixed – multimodal – transportation schemes based on high-speed (40 km/h) ships-catamarans (for up to 80 trailers) with a draught up to 2 metres, road trailers and ro-ro technology of loading operations in ports (sturgeon, Yakutsk, Tiksi, lower Janské Lena, Krasnoyarsk, Igarka, Dudinka, Dikson on the Yenisei etc.)
Implementing the experience of the Navy's open early navigation in taprobanae the ice of the Central Arctic (may – June) with the aim of expanding the period of navigation and to minimise downtime of the fleet, with the programme performance of Northern delivery.
As the reducing ice loads on the piers, leading to the damage of pile structures and pile moorings, and reduce costs of mooring in the ports of the high latitudes to use the reset of the cooling water port and floating nuclear power plants to raise the temperature of the water in the port area.
Implementation of the above proposals is only possible with the active participation of the state structures with the corresponding revision of the provisions on the Ministries of the Russian Federation and the involvement of agencies or public corporations for the execution of development programmes not only ports but the national sea and river transport fleet. The past 25-years of experience in the transfer of marine fleet of the USSR in the mythical hand of the market led to the actual destruction of shipping companies in Russia, domestic passenger and other types of dry cargo and specialized fleet, including dual-use, the closure of ocean liner shipping and at least 30 billions of dollars of annual dollar loads on the country's budget for imports of transport services.
Zbaraschenko, V. S.
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