95 years ago, at I all-Union Congress of Soviets adopted a Declaration and Treaty establishing the USSR. In them was based on Lenin's ideas about creating a Union of equal republics and the future of the world revolution. The new state was declared to be "the true bulwark against world capitalism and a decisive step towards the unification of workers of all countries". RT tried to find out why the leader of the world proletariat have chosen this form of government and which is insoluble contradictions were in it.
A fundamental question
The fate of the peoples of the former Russian Empire changed dramatically when in October 1917 the Bolsheviks seized power. The reins of the vast territory passed to ideologically cohesive elite, who dreams to break the usual order in the state as widely as possible to spread the ideas of communism.
According to experts, the formation of the USSR can be considered a logical continuation of the policy of the Bolsheviks, who decided to hold another "administrative-territorial reform".
The Declaration and Treaty establishing the USSR was adopted on 30 December 1922 at the I all-Union Congress of Soviets with the participation of delegates of the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR and the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (TSFSR). The event was held in the Bolshoi theatre in Moscow.
"By December 1922, the Bolsheviks realized that they could re-unite the biggest and most important fragments of the Empire into one state, and to stand together against "hostile capitalist encirclement". For such a state, they identified common principles of management and the Central government. 30 Dec I all-Union Congress of Soviets adopted the agreement on the formation of the USSR. This document laid the Foundation of the first Soviet Constitution of 1924, and remained formally in force until 1991," — said in an interview with RT, candidate of historical Sciences Alexander Orlov.
In the Declaration, designated causes, principles, and objectives of member countries. The most important principle proclaimed the right of peoples to self-determination, and the ultimate goal is the establishment of a world Union of Communist republics. For the next 35 years the Soviet Union successfully implemented the last paragraph of life, increasing the number of republics from 4 to 15.
Lenin vs Stalin
Representatives of the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR and the Transcaucasian socialist Federative Soviet Republic was ready to unite with Soviet Russia, but on an equal footing and with the preservation of national peculiarities. This led to disagreements with Moscow, did not want to lose monopoly on power.
In current conditions, the Central Committee had two excellent from each other of the plan of Union of the Soviet republics.
The first draft of "autonomy" was presented by Joseph Stalin, then people's Commissar of RSFSR on Affairs of nationalities. The plan provided for the entry of the republics of the RSFSR on autonomy. The authorities of Moscow and all-Russia legislation would extend to new territories. In essence Stalin's plan involved the consolidation and formation of the new state and the absorption by Russia of national Soviet republics.
Vladimir Lenin criticized the idea of Stalin and called for equitable Federal relations, putting forward your "Federal plan." Lenin insisted on making between the republics equitable contracts with the possibility of acceding to the Union in the future non-capitalist countries of Europe and Asia. It provided for the establishment of a new Constitution and the formation of a Federal government with representation from all the republics.
- Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin
- RIA Novosti
The constitutional Commission under the chairmanship of Vyacheslav Molotov, held on 23 and 24 September 1922, approved by Stalin plan. The next day the Commission was sent to Lenin at Gorki, and all the members of the Central Committee of the RCP(b). The plan of "autonomy" was approved at the Plenum of the Central Committee, which was appointed on 5 October.
Reading the draft Constitution, Lenin called Stalin to Gorki for explanations, and then both sent to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP(b) objections. Lenin made a few edits to the draft Constitution, proposing to call the new Association "the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia." The same day he wrote to members of the Politburo note "About the USSR", which expressed the view that the Russian Federation should recognize itself, and other republics equal in rights and to enter into an Alliance "together and on a par with them."
The authority of the leader of the world proletariat, despite his aggravated illness, remained unquestioned. 30 Dec 1922 in Moscow at the first all-Union Congress of Soviets signed a Treaty on the formation of the Soviet Union, which lay down the plan developed by Lenin.
"Access to the Union is open to all socialist Soviet republics, both existing and having to arise in the future. A new Union state will serve as a true bulwark against world capitalism and a new decisive step towards the unification of workers of all countries into a World Socialist Soviet Republic", — was stated in the first Soviet Constitution, adopted on 31 January 1924.
- The first Constitution of the USSR
- © Wikimedia Commons
Depending on the size of the nation and 185 nationalities of the Union was divided into the Federal Republic, directly subordinate to Moscow, Autonomous Republic within the Union; Autonomous region within the edges and a national district. It was clearly defined what kind of objects, for example, is supposed to have its own University, and what does not.
"Of course, this section has caused a lot of dissatisfaction. The peoples of Abkhazia and South Ossetia wanted to be part of Georgia. A separate area, where he lived for the most part, the Tajik population, became part of Uzbekistan, and Nagorno-Karabakh with a predominantly Armenian population, to Azerbaijan. During Soviet times, every manifestation of discontent severely punished. When came to power, Gorbachev and perestroika began, the bomb worked," — said Orlov.
The young state government has given a supranational character to have in the future, its members could take any of the Republic of separating socialist ideas. Lenin even went from the original name "Union of Soviet republics of Europe and Asia", not limited to any geographical location. Moreover, the USSR adopted the coat of arms is unique in the world, which shows the entire globe, but not marked the boundaries of the state. However, the calculations of Lenin on the world revolution did not materialize, and created under this term, the system has not survived the onslaught of the new realities.
"The Bolsheviks created the USSR as a specific project for a specific, pre-charted plan. They were guided by a commonly understood ideology and his vision of what should be the ideal society. However, the project did not survive the collision with reality. In 1971 it was officially declared that in the course of development of the Soviet Union formed a new historical community of people — the Soviet people as a result of ideological unity, of all sectors and Nations. But in the end, once the wind blew freedom, many have prevailed craving for national isolation", — said Orlov.
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